How 'high velocity'?
Found the stock 10/22 doesn't really like ammo much over 1350-1400 fps.
Or under 1050 without changing the springs.
I try to keep it somewhere around 1200~1250.
Sometimes a slower round doesn't kick back quite far enough to strike the eject and is still captured partially under the extractor.
In that case, it will still pick up the next round and stovepipe the first.
Extractor and extractor spring still suspect. Especially if it's a factory extractor. They do wear out.
May be dirty and needs to be disassembled and de-spoogged. Especially down in the extractor slot in the barrel. Shoves crap down in there almost every shot.
The extractor and spring do sit right in the dirtiest place in the gun.
And 22's are about the dirtiest round out there.
Few people pay attention to cleaning that area. Might have to look closely at it. Chunks of carbon and powder don't always wash out so easily.
Possible it isn't actually grabbing the rim because of crap down in the slot and the blow back is what's extracting the bullet and not the extractor actually controlling it until it hit the eject.
Loose, uncontrolled round has the same results you are experiencing.